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Intelligence quotient (IQ) Racial studies

Ogre

My last book, Crusade against the Cross, contains a passage in which I refer to Hollywood contributing to the prolefeed with films that end with the drama being resolved (unlike in real life, where much ends in tragedy, as the Greek tragedians Nietzsche spoke of saw). An example of this American mentality that there are no tragedies, only dramas, can be seen in a YouTube interview of anti-racist Lex Fridman with scientist Richard Haier about The Bell Curve, ‘the most controversial book ever published in science’.

Within a minute from this moment, the interviewer gives away that he has malware installed in his mind: ‘It’s just, it is difficult in a way that… we are limited by our own biology. It’s difficult, and it is, ahem, at least from the American perspective you like to believe that everything is possible in this world’.

Because Fridman is accustomed to the American ideology that the individual of any race or gender who sets out to succeed can make it in the US—the malware precisely!—, he is pained, almost panicked one might say, that there are genetic differences in intelligence. Such science, I would add, would strike a hard blow to the accepted wisdom of the human mind. This is because the psychological mythology of the US is based on Calvinist ethics that the ‘human soul’ is ‘free’ to choose.

‘Common grace’ is a theological concept in Protestant Christianity that refers to the grace of ‘God’ (the mythical god of the Judeo-Christians) that is supposedly common to all humanity, and is limited only by unnecessary cultural factors. It is ‘common’ because its benefits are experienced by or intended for the entire human race, without distinction between one person and another; and it is ‘grace’ because, according to this Reformed thinking of 19th and 20th century Calvinists, it is unmerited and sovereignly bestowed by their god.

Fridman’s interview evokes once again what in my most recent book I called ‘neotheology’: his rationalisations and fears about IQ studies are expressed at a purely secular level. Those fears remind me of an older interview, between David Rubin and Stefan Molyneux, in which the latter was hurt by the IQ difference between the races (though at least Molyneux accepts the data).

What neither Molyneux nor Fridman ask is why, once we move out of countries that emerged from Christianity in general and Protestantism in particular, people no longer suffer from this ‘ogre of the superego’ as far as racial studies are concerned. In Crusade against the Cross I also mentioned that I exchanged emails with Robert Sheaffer last year, a Nietzsche scholar, but I omitted that he told me that race and IQ studies are the most controversial and radioactive subjects in science.

This is true if one only looks at one’s cultural navel. Go to countries that never were, or continue to be, Christian, and neochristianity disappears completely. The Chinese, for example, not only expel Muslims and discriminate against blacks, but they can study eugenics freely in their universities without any guilt whatsoever.

Whites were like the Chinese, and even more racist. I first read The Antichrist forty-eight years ago, and I remember then coming across the passage in which Nietzsche speaks of Manu’s laws in the Indo-Aryan religion (which resemble the Nuremberg laws): a time when no white man was tearing his hair out over this racism simply because the Aryan collective unconscious hadn’t yet been infected with this ogre of the superego.

Categories
Correspondence Racial right Racial studies

Contra C-C commenters

by Benjamin Power

It’s very enervating [emphasis by Editor!] to read Counter-Currents comments. They’re so very confident. Bad enough that they consider their “Russians” (for it is easy for them to incorrectly render race and country synonymous) ‘white’, more honorary Slavs all in a line, or Russia considered even predominantly Slavic, but, with an appalling irony, I now see from a few commenters (and with no pushback against this, and indeed some upvotes) that:

Connor McDowell: Everyone’s favorite uncle only scored 71% when I just uploaded his mugshot.

Hamburger Today: This actually makes sense. The features of most of the very tippy-top of the NSDAP hierarchy are not very ‘Aryan’ in appearance. Heidrich is really the only one that looks like the ‘Aryan ideal’. Just goes to show that ‘Aryan’ isn’t everything.

Scott: Anyway, “Aryan” is very obsolete and almost meaningless terminology anyway, derived from the linguistics of Indo-European, which is basically all European languages and some non-European languages like Farsi. “Aryan,” therefore does not include Whites from Hungary, Estonia, and Finland, who speak the Finno-Ugric languages.

Kok Bori: Anybody who today still uses the word Aryan as a racial term is an idiot. There is not and there was no such thing as the Aryan race, there are only Aryan languages, because Aryan is a linguistical term meaning the same as Indoeuropean aka Indogermanic languages, and in a narrower sense even not all of them, but only their Eastern branch, i.e. the so-called Isoglosse Setum, do not ask me what is this, I do not know. But I know that with such criterium the Iranians, Tadshiks, Afghanis and Indians, incl. Roma-Gipsies, all are Aryans, but the Germans, Swedes, English and French are not, because they belong to the Western branch of Indoeuropean languages, or to the Isoglosse Kentum. The using of the word Aryan as a racial term today is more than obsolete, it is anti-scientifical, propagandistic, and simply wrong. [bad syntax corrected by Ed.]

Hamburger Today: The term ‘Aryan’ may be obsolete in many ways, but it is still very common. Feelings don’t care about facts.

Kok Bori: Anytime when you see some brown Bengalis, you should know they are Aryans. [Source: here]

You get the idea. I couldn’t believe their ignorance. As you know, or may have noticed on my personal library list, unlike the all-inclusive populist propaganda of these imbecilic race traitors, I try to maintain a genuine understanding of our own race.

I take it they just haven’t read anything of classic racial anthropology or true National Socialist material. That first comment by HT was particularly oafish, as if Hitler had not considered that point clearly enough. I think they do more damage to our own people than the postmodern art AI gimmick they’re criticising. I’m not sure if that echo chamber could be broken. Given the $1000s they receive in regular donations [compared to other white nationalist sites, Greggy’s C-C is a money-making machine!—Ed.], you’d think they could at least pick up a few of the late Victorian and early 20th Century authors, or indeed re-release them.

I’m not even sure so clearly who “our people” are anymore, so many let me down. Whatever these empty, feral minds are, at least they’re correct in some sense. No, somehow, they’re not Aryan. They’ve forfeited their ancestral heritage, and are indeed direct enemies. I just see more brown words. Kok Bori insults them with mockery, and they chat idly to him, mingling in accord, all very rational, these soulless intellectual linguists.

As long as Counter-Currents is here, and is popular, I regret to think it, but my feeling is that your own site—the correct viewpoint—will languish in obscurity, or, at most, criticism and disagreement and all those terrible two-cents know-it-alls. I wish there were more good, loyal, genuine, soulful people online across these sites. I suppose there aren’t. At least they’ve marked themselves in public forever as traitors. An army’s worth of traitors; it’s a worrying thought. I couldn’t live in whatever society they really thought they could bring about.

I’m glad they can’t really succeed at that, given the incoming collapse.

It’s always on my mind, knowing how many of these creatures there are, always in the way. They’re certainly not Aryan. Merely a growing faction of overt subhuman beasts, and I have nothing but cold contempt for the entire lot of them. Schoolchildren; teen bullies, the rich, cool lads of pubs and transatlantic coffeehouses, with dark minds. It annoys me so very much. They will betray innocents. My own Norman Celtic phenotype is worthless, and my grandfather’s cyan-blue eyes have all but left our family.

But I am not a traitor.

Categories
Martin Kerr Newspeak Racial studies

‘Aryan’

is the correct and proper name of our race

by Martin Kerr

 
Before 1940 or so, the term ‘Aryan’ and the name ‘Aryan race’ were part of the ordinary vocabulary of every moderately-educated person in the English-speaking world. Following the Second World War, ‘Aryan’ fell into forced disuse and disrepute because of its association with National Socialist racial ideology. Winners write the history books, and ‘Aryan’ was one word they wanted left out.

An Aryan girl, member of the Nordic sub-race. All Aryans are not
Nordics, but all Nordics (of uncontaminated ancestry) are Aryans.

Instead, it was replaced by ‘White’ in everyday use, and by ‘Indo-European’ for use by historical and linguistic specialists. Most newspapers capitalized the ‘W,’ but at some point in the 1970s, newspapers stopped capitalizing it, and it became just ‘white.’

Now we are told by our would-be masters that the White race itself does not exist—that it is merely a ‘social construct’ designed to keep the colored races of the world suppressed.

Pretty neat trick, eh? First we are exterminated linguistically, then conceptually, and next—well, killing off the Aryan race can hardly be genocide, if it does not really exist in the first place—right?

An essential countermeasure to this genocidal design is for us to reclaim both our racial identity as Aryans—and the word ‘Aryan’ itself.

The following is the truth about the term ‘Aryan,’ which our racial enemies hate so much.

About 4,000 or 5,000 years ago there was a racially homogeneous collection of tribes who called themselves the ‘Aryans’ or something similar. The name means the ‘Noble Ones,’ and is related, for example, to the Greek words aristos (‘the best’) and arete (‘excellence in virtue’). In addition to being of one race or ethnicity, they all spoke the same language, and had common religion, legal system and social structure.

For reason of lamentable Political Correctness, in the post-1945 world scholars have chosen to speak of these people as the Indo-Europeans—but practically speaking, Indo-European and Aryan are interchangeable as racial designations.

There is much controversy about the precise location Indo-European homeland, but the consensus of informed opinion places it somewhere in Southeastern Europe (perhaps in the Danube basin) or Southwestern Asia (perhaps on the western steppes or maybe in Anatolia).

At some point in time there began a great outflowing from the Indo-European homeland. Some Aryan tribes moved east and south. The Indo-Aryans were that tribe or folk which crossed the Hindu Kush mountains and descended into the Indus valley, where they gave birth to the Classical Indian civilization. Others (such as the Mitanni) migrated to the area now known as Iran, where they created the ancient Persian civilization. Still others (such as the Tocharians), journeyed further eastward, towards the rising sun, venturing across the Takla Makan desert and into Western China.

All of these Eastern Aryans, over the course of time, intermarried with the more-numerous non-Aryan peoples whom they conquered. In consequence, they lost their distinctive racial identity, and became extinct.

But the Western Aryans, following the direction of the setting Sun, poured into Europe. The Hellenes conquered Greece; the Italic tribes conquered Italy. The Celts swept across Northwestern Europe, as far as Ireland. In Northern Europe, the Germanic peoples established their distinctive culture.

All of the nations and peoples of Europe, with the exception of the Basques in the west and the Finno-Ugric peoples in the northeast, are descended from the Western Aryans. (And the Basques and Finno-Ugrians are of related racial lineage, in any case.) Because the peoples they conquered were racially similar to them, intermixture between the Indo-European conquerors and the pre-Indo-European ‘Old Europeans’ allowed the Western Aryans to maintain their distinctive racial identity to this day.

The names ‘Ireland,’ ‘Iran,’ and ‘Armenia’ all mean ‘land of the Aryans,’ and testify to the extent of Indo-European or Aryan settlement. Among the ancient Hittites, possibly the oldest Aryan civilization, we find documents using the term nata ara to refer to non-Hittites. It means exactly what you think it means: ‘non-Aryan.’

In The Histories (circa 450 BC), Herodotus actually uses the word ‘Aryan’ to describe the Medes, who were an ancient people related to the Greeks, and who lived directly to the east of them. He writes:

The Medes were called anciently by all peoples ‘Aryans,’ but when Medea, the Colchian, came to them from Athens, they changed their name. Such is the account which they themselves give.

The first opponent that Julius Caesar faced in Gaul was the German king Ariovistus, whose name is a cognate with ‘Aryan,’ as is the Celtic given name Ariomanus.

In India, the Aryan tribes kept the name ‘Aryan’ as their specific ethnonym (also in Afghanistan), where it continues to be used today, long after the last drop of pure Aryan blood has vanished.

I surmise that the Eastern Aryans, being surrounded by multitudes of non-Whites in the lands that they conquered, and with whom the differed greatly, both in appearance and quality, tended to keep their identity as Aryans, whereas the Western Aryans more readily blended in with the racially similar Europeans peoples they conquered, and so lost their identity as ‘Aryans’ more completely.

Some scholars try to pretend that the term ‘Aryan’ only has value when used linguistically or applied to the Aryans in India. But the historic and prehistoric record is clear: ‘Aryan’ was a racial or folk designation long before it was appropriated as a narrow linguistic term.

Today, racially conscious White people throughout the world have proudly reclaimed this ancient racial descriptor as the proper name of their Race—and that is how it should be!
 

______ 卐 ______

 

For the endnotes and bibliography, see the original article.

Categories
Racial studies

Caligula, 7

The final chapters of Roldán’s book, which revolve around the assassination of Caligula by patriotic Romans (like the patriots who killed Julius Caesar) are the most intense. The previous chapters, which I won’t quote either, show how the young Gaius became a sort of cruel, unjust and crazy Joffrey Baratheon, the 18th king to rule from the Iron Throne in George R.R. Martin’s fantasy world.

In one of the final pages of Calígula we see that the Roman Senate apparently had a golden opportunity to reinstate the Republic, but according to the author it was already very decadent times and there was no way back for the Empire. Claudius was made the new Emperor.

One of the reasons I don’t like the art of writing is that I can only think in visual terms. As some people know, when I was a kid I wanted to be a film director. If I can’t see the ethnic group to which the Roman Senate belonged from centuries before our era until its abolition in the Christian era, I can’t know what was going on. I need the picture.

That’s why I got so hooked on Martin’s metaphor of the Weirwood to see the historical past of Westeros. What if, in the real world, I could see how Nordic the early Roman kings, senators and aristocracy of the Republican period were, and finally see, in full colour as Martin’s greenseers could, the skin, eye and hair of later eras? This would mean visiting Rome thirteen or fourteen times, with leaps of one visit per century from the 8th century b.c.e. to the 5th century c.e.

The reason I am not interested in Roldán’s prose or any other conventional historian is that I am tremendously influenced by William Pierce, Eduardo Velasco and Arthur Kemp as far as history is concerned (they all appear in The Fair Race). These authors say that, gradually, the Greeks and Romans interbred with mudbloods losing their Nordic look after a few centuries.

What’s the use of reading dry words from Roldán’s book if I can’t see the senators from the time before the Punic Wars and the senators of Caligula’s time? The loyalty one feels for almost identical people is not the same as with mixed people. Now I am reminded of a 1962 film, Advise & Consent about American Senators, based on a Pulitzer Prize-winning novel of the same title: white male senators. Compare that black-and-white film with today’s senatorial Babel in the same country, where ethnicity matters and dictates the agenda.

I can only think, as I said, in visual terms but normie historians live in a world of abstract ideas insofar as they don’t know that race, and ethnic allegiance of a homogeneous group, matters.

If I had the financial means, my way of doing history would be to try to find the tombs of these ancient Romans, date them with carbon-14 and reconstruct their faces (in much the same way as above we can see the face of Caligula) to see if we can corroborate the thesis of Pierce, Velasco and Kemp.

At the academic level, Martin Nilson (1874-1967), the Swedish scholar of the classical world, went so far as to say that the mixing of blood was the ultimate cause of the decline and fall of Rome. Such research is forbidden today. But only from such a premise, and with the consequent images such as the reconstructed heads of the ancient Romans from their skulls could I, with the technological means we already possess, approach the fantastic idea of seeing the past as it happened.

Categories
Fair Race’s Darkest Hour (book) Nordicism Racial right Racial studies

White Nationalism has something in common with the FBI

I had resolved not to upload any more posts until the translation of Savitri Devi’s Souvenirs et Réflexions d’une Aryenne was ready. But I couldn’t resist responding to an anti-Nordicist piece that Counter-Currents published on Saturday.

If I have maintained for years that the internet movement that since the mid-1990s began to call itself white nationalism is phoney, it is precisely because they broke with the Nordicist tradition that proceeds from the French aristocrat Gobineau, the British Houston Stewart Chamberlain and the German Hans F. K. Günther to Americans like Madison Grant and even the eugenicists on both sides of the Atlantic, who flourished before World War II. After the war, the Establishment suspended these activities, and recently even Grant’s bust in an American park was removed permanently by the anti-white Establishment itself.

Has the author of the Counter-Currents piece read the work of Gobineau, Chamberlain, Günther or Grant? Rather, he cherry-picks out of context from Hitler’s legacy, omitting that the Great Plan of Himmler and his henchmen was to conquer Europe for the Nordics (not just the Germans). Although I am arranging our NS POV in a very orderly fashion with the PDFs in the featured post, very few on the racial right seem to read not only our Daybreak Press books, but not even the books of other authors! Remember: The West’s Darkest Hour will always be incomprehensible to those who don’t read entire books. The following is a passage (pages 117-129) from ‘Lebensraum’ which appears in On Exterminationism:

‘If we could establish the Nordic race and, from this seedbed, produce a race of 200 million, the world would be ours,’ Himmler said eloquently. A few months after its founding Lebensborn opened Heim Hochland, the first home for pregnant women. For this purpose, the National Socialists took over the building of a Catholic orphanage in the city of Munich. Initially, the institution could accommodate up to thirty mothers and fifty-five children, and the applicants were carefully selected. Only women who met the characteristics of the dominant race were admitted. Candidates had their skulls measured, and only those with the coveted elongated skull, typical of the Nordid type, could be admitted. They also had to meet other requirements, such as blond hair, blue or green eyes and good health.

And this one is a passage from Daybreak (pages: 91-93):

The Germans clearly defined their ethnicity as Germanic, including Austria, the Scandinavian and Low Countries, Switzerland and parts of the old Soviet Union. Hitler even dreamt of sharing the world with the British Empire. For the eugenicists of the last century on both sides of the Atlantic, Nordicism was taken for granted. Those who advocate white nationalism either ignore eugenics or don’t care about Nordicism at all. Like the conservatives of the Republican Party who treat mestizos as equals, in order not to offend Mediterranean sensibilities white nationalists refuse to recognise that the standard of whiteness is the Nordic type. Many have no objection to conceding amnesty to the Caucasoid population in Europe with their bloodline compromised, even if that means the eventual mongrelisation of true whites.

Because the American racial right has rejected the legacy of Hitler and his predecessors in race studies, it has slipped into a slippery slope that leads to positions very similar to those of the US government, that in its FBI statistics categorises mestizos as white. The author of the aforementioned Counter-Currents article, for example, speaks of ‘white’ Latin Americans. In reality, except for true whites such as the Mexican Mennonites, of Germanic descent, who do not interbreed with mestizos, and other immigrants who have very recently emigrated from Europe, there are no pure whites in Latin America. Centuries of miscegenation with Indians and mulattoes have diluted the white gene to such a degree that more than ninety-nine per cent of the inhabitants of Latin America have tainted blood. Yes: compared to the bulk of Mexican mestizos I would be a sort of ‘castizo’ or ‘harnizo’ who phenotypically could pass for a Spaniard, but I am not Aryan genotypically speaking (unless we use the parameters of the FBI or Counter-Currents).

Pure Nordid. I would suggest that people who are unclear about how to classify the various Caucasoid groups (and remember that even Jews are Caucasoid, especially Ashkenazis who have absorbed a lot of white blood) read the appendix to The Fair Race’s Darkest Hour. The best way to refute anti-Nordicism is simply to look at a lot of pictures of the various European groups (Meds, Nordics and Semites) and their interbreeding with each other: including those with black blood such as the Portuguese.

Sicilian man. I would also suggest watching the short YouTube clips these days, in which the players of the 2022 World Cup parade in the stadium, with camera close-ups of their faces before the actual games, revealing that not only the Latin American footballers, but the Latin American public in the stadium in Qatar, and even the players and public of some European countries, are no longer authentically white. Those who still refuse to read whole books should at least read the abstract of the final article of The Fair Race, written by the Spaniard Evropa Soberana and a colleague who specialises in racial classification.

If we keep in mind the new subtitle of this site (‘May the beauty of the White Aryan woman not disappear from the Earth’), I would fight for the blonde genes above to produce the beautiful nymphs of the Daybreak painting. But what would be the point of fighting for the Sicilian’s genes if he can’t produce such beautiful creatures?

As I said, WN is phoney.

Categories
Arthur de Gobineau Bible Deranged altruism Eugenics Heinrich Himmler Hitler's Religion (book) Jesus Mein Kampf (book) Miscegenation Racial studies Richard Weikart

Hitler’s Religion: Chapter 7

Editor’s note: Here are some excerpts from the seventh chapter of Richard Weikart’s book.
 

______ 卐 ______

 

Under the leadership of Madame Blavatsky, theosophy had tried to blend a mystical racism with a scientific view of an evolutionary hierarchy of races. Despite professing the brotherhood of all humanity, theosophy taught racial inequality, and Blavatsky even endorsed the extermination of inferior races. Lanz also drew inspiration from non-mystical, non-occult sources, such as the physician and racial theorist Ludwig Woltmann. Before founding his own journal, Lanz wrote an extended review of Woltmann’s book, Die politische Anthropologie, for a freethinking journal and waxed enthusiastic about Woltmann’s racist doctrine of Nordic superiority. Woltmann’s book had been written for a prize competition for the best work on the political and social implications of Darwinian theory. He synthesized Darwin’s theory of natural selection with Arthur Gobineau’s theory of the racial superiority of the Nordic race.

[Left, Joseph Arthur de Gobineau (1816-1882), a French aristocrat.] Woltmann was a biological and racial determinist, believing that not only physical characteristics, but also mental and moral traits, are hereditary. Thus, one’s destiny is predetermined in one’s biological makeup. Race, according to Woltmann, is the key to historical development, because some races—the fair-skinned Nordic one especially—were superior. The Nordic race, he stated, is “the highest product of organic evolution,” and they were the founders of civilization. Further, he believed that races arose through an ongoing racial struggle for existence, and, like Gobineau, he thought that racial mixing was deleterious, leading to racial decline.

Though Lanz used the term Aryan rather than Nordic, many of his ideas about race were similar to those of Woltmann and other Nordic racists. Lanz believed that “race is the driving force behind all deeds,” determining the destiny of all peoples, or Völker. Racial wisdom was thus the paramount value, motivating him to establish a religion of race. Lanz warned that the Aryan race was threatened with decline, and his religion aimed at rescuing and preserving this endangered, but valuable, race. The key peril confronting Aryans was racial mixture. One of the more bizarre claims that Lanz made—based on his mystical interpretation of the Bible—was that the Fall happened when Eve copulated with an animal, producing progeny who were half-ape and half-human. These “ape-people” that Eve bore were the ancestors of the inferior races around the globe, such as black Africans, and their animal blood tainted all inferior races. This Fall involved racial mixture with a vengeance, and it dehumanized all non-Aryans, who supposedly had admixtures of animal blood coursing through their veins.

Unlike Hitler, who despised the Hebrew Bible as the effluvium of the Jewish mind, Lanz claimed that Moses was a Darwinist who—if interpreted in the proper mystical sense—taught Aryans how to triumph in the racial struggle through conscious racial selection. Lanz maintained that the Jews had succeeded historically despite their inferiority because they had appropriated the biblical wisdom that was really intended for Aryans. Aryans should embrace the Bible, including the Old Testament, “as the hard, racially proud and racially conscious book, which proclaims death and extermination to the inferior and world domination to the superior (Hochwertigen).” Unfortunately, Lanz continued, a false kind of love had been incorporated into the Bible by some misguided souls.

Elsewhere, Lanz elaborated that the kind of neighborly love and compassion that most people equated with Christianity, and which appeared in the Bible, was based on a misinterpretation hypocritically taught by the inferior races, the so-called “ape-people.” The word “neighbor” in the Old Testament really meant, he assured his fellow Aryan racists, one’s racial comrade. Thus the command to love our neighbor really “means that we only have to love our racial comrades, thus those who stand closest to our kind and our race.” In a 1907 issue of Ostara, he warned his fellow Aryans that they were committing race suicide by extending generosity to those of inferior races. Rather, they should always discriminate racially in their charitable giving. (Apparently, Jesus’ parable of the Good Samaritan meant nothing to Lanz—or to Hitler.) Ominously, Lanz compared racially inferior people to weeds needing to be pulled. A major theme in this pamphlet and many others was the need to introduce eugenics measures to improve the race.

Many of Lanz’s doctrines became core tenets of Hitler’s worldview: the primacy of race in determining historical developments, Aryan superiority (with the Aryans being the sole creators of culture), the Darwinian racial struggle, the need for eugenics policies, and the evils of racial mixing. Hitler also shared Lanz’s view that Aryans had developed an ancient civilization in the mythical Atlantis. In a passage of Mein Kampf that decries racial mixing in a manner reminiscent of Lanz’s writings, Hitler admonished the state to elevate the status of marriage, which under the present system was supposedly contributing to biological decline. By hindering the marriages of those he dubbed inferior, he hoped marriages could “produce images of the Lord and not monstrosities halfway between man and ape.” By claiming that racial mixture could result in human-ape hybrids, Hitler was pulling a page out of Lanz’s repertoire. No wonder [Wilfried] Daim was struck by the similarities between Lanz and Hitler and supposed that Hitler’s ideology hailed largely from Lanz’s writings. Given all these parallels, most historians acknowledge the likelihood that Lanz’s Ariosophy influenced Hitler’s ideology, either directly or indirectly.

But another like-minded Ariosophist in Vienna, Guido von List, was probably even more influential among early twentieth-century Pan-German nationalists than his colleague Lanz. He introduced the swastika symbol into Aryan racist circles before Lanz, and his ideas were widely discussed in the Pan-German press in Vienna. List and Lanz propagated similar occult racial ideologies, and they belonged to each other’s organizations. Before becoming entranced with occult thinking, List wrote for Pan-German publications. He carried this intense nationalist and racist heritage with him into his occult Aryan religion.

Like Lanz, he claimed he was recovering ancient Germanic wisdom that had been lost, and he wanted to replace Catholicism with his mystical faith. He preached Aryan supremacy, the need to engage in the struggle for existence against other races, and eugenics measures to improve the vitality of the Aryan race. In 1908, he explained the core of his message: “The high meaning of this custom [of ancient Aryans] lay in the intention of a planned, widespread breeding of a noble race, which through strict sexual laws would also remain racially pure.” List wanted to reconstitute an ancient Germanic priesthood with esoteric knowledge that could elevate the racially purified and ennobled Aryans to dominate the globe.

We do not know if Hitler had any direct contact with List or the List Society when he lived in Vienna. Brigitte Hamann, however, believes that Hitler’s racial ideology had more in common with List than with Lanz. List, for example, taught that the Aryans evolved into a superior race during the Ice Age. They were steeled in body and mind by the harsh conditions, and they had to wage a bitter battle against the elements. Natural selection eliminated the weak, sickly, and less cooperative, leaving the robust, healthy, and more moral members to propagate their superior biological traits. Hitler narrated a similar tale of Aryan origins in his 1920 speech, “Why Are We Anti-Semites?” List also viewed nature as the source of divine power, and according to Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, he reduced all morality to just one ethical precept: “Live in accordance with Nature.” Hitler’s ethical views also stressed conformity to nature and its laws…

In August 1918, shortly before the end of the war, he [Rudolf von Sebottendorff] founded the Thule Society in Munich as an organization to foster German nationalism and Aryan racism. The Thule Society adopted the swastika as its symbol and “Heil” as its greeting, thus contributing to later Nazi practices.

In June 1918, Sebottendorff acquired the Münchner Beobachter as the mouthpiece for the Thule Society. In order to attract young Germans to his movement, he featured sports articles in this newspaper. However, its real purpose was to advance his racist and ultranationalist views, so he also published articles on these themes. One early article he wrote was “Keep Your Blood Pure,” which sounds remarkably similar to Hitler’s racial philosophy in Mein Kampf. In this essay, Sebottendorff asserted that race is the key to understanding history. He was incensed that Christianity had led some Germans to embrace racial equality. He wrote,

Encouraged by Christianity they propagated the doctrine of the equality of humans. Gypsies, Hottentots, Brazilian natives, and Germans are supposedly completely equal in value. Too bad the great teacher, nature, teaches otherwise. It teaches: This equality is nonsense. It is the greatest lie that humanity has ever been talked into. To the destruction of us Germans. There are higher and lower races! If one values the racial mish-mash, the “Tschandalen” [this was Lanz’s term for inferior human races that had resulted from a human-ape hybrid] the same as the Aryans—the noble humans—then one commits a crime against humanity… Wherever one looks in the past, the bearers of Germanic blood have always been the bearers and creators of culture.

The affinities with Hitler’s worldview are obvious: racial inequality, the role of nature in confirming racial inequality, and the Aryans as the sole creators of culture. When Hitler came to power in 1933, Sebottendorff boasted that he had laid the intellectual foundation for Nazism.

Sebottendorff’s view of Christianity was similar to Hitler’s, too. He criticized many of its features, especially its tendency to promote human equality. While appreciating Luther’s anti-Semitism, he noted that it was nonetheless deficient, because it was based on religious, not racial, considerations. He also dismissed the notion that people should turn the other cheek. Rather, he proclaimed, they should strike back until their opponent remained on the ground. Strangely, Sebottendorff thought Jesus approved of this pugnacity, for he continued, “That was also the opinion of our Savior: He came to bring the sword”…

A different movement, neo-paganism, also held sway over some leading Nazis, especially Himmler and Rosenberg. Neo-paganism, the attempt to resurrect the old Germanic gods and goddesses, sometimes overlapped with occultism, though some neo-paganists were staunch opponents of it. Both schools of thought were anti-Christian in their orientation. The occultist Sebottendorff, for example, tried to resurrect the worship of Wotan and other ancient Germanic gods. Himmler and Rosenberg saw neo-paganism as a way to bring Germans back to their original pre-Christian religion. Neo-paganism countered the universalizing tendencies of Christianity and emphasized the distinctiveness of the Aryan race, even in their religion.

Despite all these historical connections between Hitler and occultists, the popular idea that Hitler was an occultist—or at least powerfully influenced by occultism—faces serious objections…

Categories
American civil war Amerindians Blacks Miscegenation Racial right Racial studies Slavery

American racial history timeline

Or:

On Jared Taylor’s cherries

The Cherry Picker
William-Adolphe Bouguereau
(1825-1905)

His site [American Renaissance] is a valve escape for semi-normies to release their frustrations in a comfortable and safe way. —Jamie

This is a reply to ‘What the Founders Really Thought About Race’ by Jared Taylor, a classic American Renaissance article of February 17, 2012 republished yesterday on AmRen.

If there is one racialist who can be considered a patriot in the traditional sense of the word, he is Jared Taylor. Unlike the traditional sense, I prefer to say Your race is your nation, which means that the history of Sweden or Germany should be as important to the white nationalist as the history of his home country.

But Taylor cherry-picks historical facts that seem to put the history of the US (not of his race, his real nation) in a benign light. That’s why in yesterday’s article he said: ‘Today’s egalitarians are therefore radical dissenters from traditional American thinking’.

The truth is that there have always been egalitarian fanatics in his country, as we shall see.

The best way to answer Taylor is to quote his pal Brad Griffin of Occidental Dissent, who in 2008 and 2009 made a very long list of American racial history that is worth quoting, in abbreviated form, as I do below adding some comments of mine, including a few sentences in square brackets and emphasis in red letters. (*)

Griffin’s long list provides context to the subject of Taylor’s recent article, and demonstrates that the granddaddy of the Alt-Right, as Greg Johnson once called him, carefully cherry-picked some historical facts to provide an idealised picture of the US:

 

______ 卐 ______

 

American Racial History Timeline

1550

The term ‘negro’ enters the English language from Spanish. (Jordan, 61)

1600

The term ‘mulatto’ enters the English language from Spanish. (Jordan, 61)

1619

Twenty blacks brought by a Dutch ship to Virginia. Some blacks had arrived even earlier. (Davis, xi)

1637

Pequot War in Massachusetts. (Jordan, 68)

1638

First negroes arrive in New England aboard the slave ship Desire, perhaps as slaves. (Jordan, 67)

1652

Rhode Island outlaws slavery but the law remains a dead letter. (Jordan, 70)

1661

Maryland criminalizes intermarriage between white women and negro men. (Brown and Stentiford, 533)

1662

Virginia passes an anti-miscegenation law. (Jordan, 79)

Maryland passes an anti-miscegenation law. (Jordan, 79)

1676

Bacon’s Rebellion in Virginia. (Klinker and Smith, 10)

1681

Maryland passes another anti-miscegenation law. (Jordan, 79)

1688

Four Quakers sign antislavery petition in Germantown, Pennsylvania. (Davis, xii)

Virginia Assembly declares that free negroes ‘ought not in all respects to be admitted to a full fruition of the exemptions and impunities of the English’. Variations of this guideline are accepted in every colony. (Jordan, 123)

1691

Virginia passes an anti-miscegenation law that prohibits all interracial liasons. (Jordan, 80)

Virginia requires manumitted negroes to leave the state. (Jordan, 124)

1692

Maryland passes an anti-miscegenation law.

1700

Negroes are now commonly being treated as chattel slaves. (Jordan, 44)

In the Southern colonies, free negroes are unable by law to testify against white persons. In New England, free negroes can testify against anyone. (Jordan, 123)

1705

Virginia Assembly declares negroes ineligible to hold public office. (Jordan, 126)

Virginia writes its slave code. Free negroes from raising their hand against whites. (Jordan, 73) Slaves forbidden to carry firearms, teaching slaves to read a crime. (Brown and Stentiford, 223)

Massachusetts adopts an anti-miscegenation law. (Jordan, 139)

1712

Slave uprising in New York City. (Davis, xii)

1715

North Carolina and South Carolina bar negroes from the polls; North Carolina does not continue the prohibition after the 1730s. (Jordan, 126)

North Carolina adopts an anti-miscegenation law. (Jordan, 139)

1717

South Carolina adopts an anti-miscegenation law. (Jordan, 139)

1722-1740

South Carolina requires free negroes to leave the colony unless permitted to do so by special act of the assembly.

1723

Virginia bars negroes from the polls. (Jordan, 126)

Virginia prohibits manumission [the act of freeing slaves by their owners] of negroes. (Jordan, 124)

1726

Pennsylvania adopts an anti-miscegenation law.

1739

Stono slave rebellion in South Carolina. (Davis, xii)

1741

Slave conspiracy uncovered in New York City. Many hanged and burned at the stake. (Davis, xii)

1745

Massachusetts prohibits negroes from participating in a government lottery [an electorate system] . (Jordan, 130)

1750

British government sanctions slavery in Georgia, prohibited in 1735. (Davis, xii)

Georgia adopts an anti-miscegenation law after negroes are admitted into the colony. (Jordan, 139)

1758-1776

Quakers begin pre-Revolution antislavery agitation. (Jordan, 271)

1760

The [Newspeak] word and concept of ‘prejudice’ comes into circulation in the years after 1760. (Jordan, 276)

1761

Georgia restricts suffrage to white men. (Jordan, 126)

1762

Virginia disenfranchises negroes. (Keyssar, 354)

1763

The first known Asians arrive in the United States when a group of Filipinos known as the Louisiana Manila Men developed settlements in Louisiana. These individuals fail to attain U.S. citizenship, as the Naturalization Act of 1790 only granted citizenship to free whites. (Brown and Stentiford, 48)

1769

Virginia establishes castration as the penalty for convicted black rapists of white women. (Jordan, 473)

1770s

Denial of negro mental inferiority becoming common place in antislavery circles. Benjamin Franklin thought Negroes ‘not deficient in natural understanding’, though Alexander Hamilton seemed less certain when he remakred that ‘their natural faculties are perhaps probably as good as ours’. (Jordan, 282)

1770

Delaware forbids negroes from administering corporal punishment to whites. (Jordan,131)

1773-79

New England slaves petition legislatures for freedom. Increasing numbers of antislavery tracts are published in America. (Davis, xii)

1774

Rhode Island prohibits slave trade. (Jordan, 291)

Rhode Island raises a separate battallion of negroes to fight in the American Revolution; Georgia and South Carolina hold out to the end. (Jordan, 302)

1775-1783 – American Revolution

Negro soldiers participate in virtually every major military action of the American Revolution. (Litwack, 12)

George Washington orders recruiting officers not to enlist ‘any deserter from within the Ministerial army, nor any stroller, negro, or vagabond’. (Klinker and Smith, 17)

5,000 negro soldiers participate in the American Revolution. (Brown and Stentiford, 281)

1775

Lord Dunmore, royal governor of Virginia, promises freedom to any slaves who desert rebellious masters and serve in the king’s forces, an offer taken up by some eight hundred blacks. (Davis, xii)

The first secular antislavery organization is founded, The Society for the Relief of Free Negroes. (Jordan, 343)

Maryland and the Northern colonies do not officially bar negroes from the polls until the Revolution. (Jordan, 126)

1776

Declaration of Independence describes Indians as ‘merciless Indian Savages’. (Nugent, 4)

Thomas Jefferson’s indictment of slavery is removed from the Declaration of Independence out of fear that the Southern colonies, especially South Carolina and Georgia, would refuse to sign. (Brown and Stentiford, 462)

Thomas Paine publishes incendiary [egalitarian] pamphlet Common Sense. (Nugent, 7)

1777

Vermont’s constitution outlaws slavery. (Davis, xii, Jordan, 345)

1779

Thomas Jefferson’s revisal of the laws of Virginia calls for banishment of white women who have mulatto children: ‘If any white woman shall have a child by a negro or mulatto, she and her child shall depart the commonwealth within one year thereafter. If they shall fail so to do, the woman shall be out of the protection of the laws, and the child shall be bound out by the Aldermen of the county, in like manner as poor orphans are by law directed to be, and within one year after its term of service expired shall depart the commonwealth, or on failure so to do, shall be out of the protection of the laws’. (Jordan, 472)

Editor’s note: Note that this is very different from killing those who mixed their precious blood, as the Iberian Visigoths did before Christianity brainwashed them.

1780

Pennsylvania adopts a gradual emancipation law [in this context, emancipation was any effort to procure economic, social or political rights / equality to Negroes].

(Davis, xii, Jordan, 345)

Revolutionary era constitutions of Virginia, South Carolina, and Georgia exclude negroes from the franchise. (Jordan, 412)

An estimated 200,000 to 250,000 Indians are living east of the Misssissippi. By 1780, almost all Indians have been pushed west of the Appalachians. (Nugent, 10)

1781-1782

Thomas Jefferson writes his Notes on the State of Virginia. [Among other topics, he wrote extensively about slavery, his dislike of miscegenation, justifications of white supremacy, and his belief that whites and blacks could not co-exist in a society in which the latter were free.]

1782

Virginia legislature authorizes private manumission of slaves. (Jordan, 574)

1783

In Massachusetts, the case of Commonwealth v. Jennison is interpreted as removing any judicial sanctions for slavery. (Davis, xii)

Kentucky and Tennessee no longer seriously contested between whites and Indians. (Nugent, 48)

1784

The Pennsylvania Abolition Society is formed. (Davis, xii)

Connecticut and Rhode Island enact gradual emancipation laws. Congress narrowly rejects Jefferson’s proposal to exclude slavery from all Western territories after the year 1800. The New York Manumission Society [to abolish slavery] is organized. (Davis, xii)

1785

The New York assembly passes a gradual emancipation bill which would have barred Negroes from the polls [voting in today’s vocabulary] and from marrying whites, but the state senate objected to the intermarriage clause because ‘in so important a connection they thought the free subjects of this State ought to be left to their free choice’. The New York assembly voted again to keep the anti-miscegenation clause, but ultimately receded on it. (Jordan, 741-472)

John Jay and Alexander Hamilton [an American revolutionary, statesman and founding father of the United States of America] chair the New York Manumission Society. (Litwack, 14)

1786

In Massachusetts, an act of 1786 voids marriages between whites and Negroes. (Jordan, 472)

Massachusetts legislature votes to expel all negroes who are not citizens of one of the states. (Litwack, 16)

1787

Thomas Jefferson publishes Notes on State of Virginia, endorses racialism, negro intellectual inferiority, and calls for the colonization of free blacks to their native climate. (Jordan, 547)

The Constitution Convention agrees to count three-fifths of a state’s slave population in apportioning representation; to forbid Congress from ending the slave trade until 1808; and to require that fugitive slaves who cross state lines be surrendered to their owners. The Continental Congress enacts the Northwest Ordinance, prohibiting slavery in the territories north of the Ohio and east of the Mississippi rivers. (Davis, xiii)

The U.S. Constitution specifically excludes Indian nations from inclusion in the American political system. Classified as foreign nations and ‘Indians not taxed’, the Constitution gave Congress exclusive jurisdiction for dealing with Indian tribes. (Brown and Stentiford, 579)

U.S. antislavery movement becomes interested in vindicating Negro mental equality in reponse to Jefferson’s racial theories in his Notes on the State of Virginia. Equalitarianism will become a standard theme of abolitionist literature during the 1790s. (Jordan, 445-446)

South Carolina bans slave importations. (Jordan, 318)

All the states have by now banned the slave trade. (Jordan, 342)

Northwest Ordinance prohibits slavery in the Northwest Territory. (Jordan, 322)

Delaware legislature authorizes private manumission of slaves. (Jordan, 347)

 
1789-1797, George Washington Adminstration

1789

An ‘Address to the Public’ by the Pennsylvania Abolition Society, signed by its president, Benjamin Franklin, declared that the chains which bound the slave’s body ‘do also fetter his intellectual faculties; and impair the social affections of his heart’. (Jordan, 447)

William Pinkney, a famous Maryland state legislator, attacks slavery by arguing that Negroes and whites were ‘endued with equal faculties of mind and body’. He goes on to state that Negroes are ‘in all respects our equals by nature; and he who thinks otherwise has never reflected, that talents, however great, may perish unnoticed and unknown, unless auspicious circumstances conspire to draw them forth, and animate their exertions in the round of knowledge’. (Jordan, 447)

1790

New Jersey passes a law that allows all ‘qualified’ inhabitants to vote. (Keyssar, 54)

Quakers and the Pennsylvania Abolition Society petition Congress to use its fullest constitutional powers to discourage slavery and slave trade; the petitions evoke angry debate and attacks on petitioners by congressmen from the Deep South. (Davis, xiii)

Charles Crawford attacks Jefferson’s racialism in his Observations Upon Negro Slavery.

The first federal naturalization law, the Naturalization Act of 1790, restricts American citizenship to ‘free white persons’. (Jordan, 341)

An estimated 61 to 66 percent of Americans are of English origin and between 80 and 84 percent of English-speaking origin. (Jordan, 339)

Maryland legislature authorizes private manumission of slaves. (Jordan, 347)

1792

Virginia legislature specifically declares castration to be a permissible punishment for any slave ‘convicted of an attempt to ravish a white woman’. (Jordan, 473)

Gilbert Imlay attacks Jeffersonian racialism in his A Topographical Descritpion of the Western Territory of North America. (Jordan, 441-442)

Virginia slave code restricts the right of free negroes to purchase servants only of their own complexion. (Jordan, 407)

Congress passes a federal militia law which includes only ‘white’ men. (Jordan, 412)

Delaware disenfranchies negroes. (Keyssar, 354)

1793

Congress enacts a fugitive slave law. (Jordan, 327)

Virginia prohibits immigration of free negroes. (Farnam, 199-200)

1794

Congress passes a law forbidding Americans from participating in the international slave trade. (Jordan, 327)

1795

Before the mid-1790s many states extended to negro slaves the right of trial by jury in capital cases. Racial attitudes begin to harden again about ten years after the American Revolution. (Jordan, 403)

Treaty of Greenville. Indians cede title to 3/4ths of the future state of Ohio. (Nugent, 44)

1795-1808

Decline of the first antislavery movement. (Jordan, 348)

1796

Maryland legislature authorizes private manumission of slaves. (Jordan, 347)
 

1797-1801, John Adams Adminstration

1797

Connecticut adopts another gradual emancipation law. (Litwack, 3)

1798

Rhode Island passes a law that bans interracial marriage between blacks and whites. (Jordan, 472)

Kentucky legislature authorizes private manumission of slaves. (Jordan, 347)

1799

New York adopts a law for gradual emancipation. (Davis, xiv)

Kentucky disenfranchises negroes. (Keyssar, 354)

1800-1860

Until the post Civil War-era, Northerners draw a sharp distinction between negro civic equality, of which they approved, and political and society equality, which they did not. (Litwack, 15)

1800

Rhode Island legislature declares no paternity suits could be brought by Negro women against white men. (Jordan, 472)

South Carolina outlaws residence of free negroes. (Jordan, 399)
 

1801-1809, Thomas Jefferson Administration

1801

Tennessee legislature authorizes private manumission of slaves. (Jordan, 347)

Maryland statute disenfranchises negroes. (Keyssar, 354)

1802

James T. Callender makes his famous charge in the Richmond Recorder that it was ‘well known’ that Thomas Jefferson kept Sally Hemmings, one of his slaves, as a concubine and had fathered children by her. (Jordan, 465)

Editor’s note: If true, Jefferson deserved the punishment the Visigoths used for those who committed the sin against the holy ghost (miscegenation).

Georgia relinquishes claim to Alabama and Mississippi in exchange for a promise by the Jefferson administration that the federal government would seek voluntary removal of Indian tribes within her boundries. (Howe, 256)

1803

South Carolina reopens the slave trade. (Jordan, 318)

1804

Clement Clarke Moore, a New York scholar of Hebrew with Federalist sympathies, attacks Jefferson’s racial views in his Observations upon Certain Passages in Mr. Jefferson’s Notes on Virginia, Which Appear to Have a Tendency to Subvert Religion. (Jordan, 442)

1805

Yet again, both houses of the Virginia legislature adopt resolutions calling for the removal of free Negroes. The resolution of 1805 instructed Virginia congressmen to press for a portion of the Louisiana Territory for settlement of free Negroes. (Jordan, 565)

Virginia revises penal code and abolishes castration. (Jordan, 473)

1806

Hudgins v. Wright, the court decides that three generations of women with straight black hair were Indian, not black, and therefore free. (Brown and Stentiford, 535)

Virginia restricts the right of masters to manumit their slaves; free blacks must leave the state within one year. (Jordan, 574)

Ohio already prohibiting permanent residence of Negroes. (Jordan, 575)

Georgia enacts a mandatory death penalty for any Negro raping or attempting to rape a white woman. (Jordan, 473)

1807

Slave trade abolished in the United States. (Hinks and McKivigan, xxxix)

Maryland prohibits permanent residence of free negroes. (Jordan, 575)

Louisiana prohibits immigration of free negroes. (Farnam, 199-200)
 

1809-1817, James Madison Administration

1810

Reverend Samuel Stanhope Smith attacks Jefferson’s racialism in his An Essay on the Causes of the Variety of Complexion and Figure in the Human Species. He argues in a Boasian vein that the Negro skull and intellect has been deformed by his harsh environment. (Jordan, 443)

Proportion of Free Negroes:

Delaware: 75.9%
Maryland: 23.3%
Virginia: 7.2%
North Carolina: 5.7%
South Carolina: 2.3%
Georgia: 1.7% (Jordan, 407)

All Southern and two Northern states pass laws either restricting immigration of free Negroes, banning it altogether, or requiring emigration of emancipated slaves. (Jordan, 410)

1811

Delaware prohibits immigration of free negroes. (Farnam, 220)

1812

Louisiana admitted to the Union. (Nugent, 70)

Louisiana disenfranchises negroes. (Keyssar, 354)

James Madison’s war message references Indian attacks along the Northwestern frontier, ‘the warfare just renewed by the savages on one of our extensive frontiers: a warfare which is known to spare neither age nor sex and to be distinguished by features peculiarly shocking to humanity’. (Nugent, 82)

1812-1814, War of 1812

Negro soldiers participate in the War of 1812. (Brown and Stentiford, 281)

1813-1815

Creek War. (Nugent, 117)

1814

Treaty of Fort Jackson. Creeks are forced to cede much of their land in Alabama and Georgia. (Nugent, 227)

1814-1838

Connecticut, New York, Rhode Island, Tennessee, North Carolina and Pennsylvania prohibit or drastically restrict voting by negroes. (Jordan, 414)

1816

Bishop Richard Allen founds the African Methodist Episcopal Church. (Brown and Stentiford, 252)
 

1817-1825, James Monroe Administration

Under the Monroe administration, Secretary of War John C. Calhoun encourages gradual resettlement of Southern Indian tribes across the Mississippi. (Howe, 255)

1817

New York adopts a law that frees all remaining slaves in 1827. (Davis, xiv)

Indiana passes an anti-miscegenation law. (Farnam, 216)

1818

Illinois abolishes slavery. (Litwack, 3)

1818-21

The Missouri Crisis, followed by the Compromise of 1820 and further debate over Missouri’s constitution, which restricts entry of free blacks and mulattos. (Davis, xiv)

1819

Adams-Onís Treaty. Acquisition of Florida by the United States. (Nugent, 96)

Appropriation from the Monroe administration supports the American Colonization Society. [The American Colonization Society (ACS), originally known as the Society for the Colonization of Free Coloured People of America until 1837, was founded in 1816 by Robert Finley to encourage and support the migration of free blacks to Africa.]

1820

By 1820, free negroes could not exercise certain rights and privileges guaranteed to American citizens and aliens. (Litwack, 33)

American Colonization Society makes its first attempt at African colonization by settling 86 negroes and their families on Sherbro Island off the west coast of Africa. (Brown and Stentiford, 59)

Editor’s note: In a futuristic, post-Christian Western civilization that complies with Nietzsche’s revaluation of all values, these pious measures will be deemed unnecessary.

1821

American Colonization Society establishes the colony of Liberia on the west coast of Africa. (Brown and Stentiford, 59)

1822

Mississippi prohibits immigration of free negroes. (Farnam, 199-200)

1824

Ohio state legislature passes a resolution proposing African colonization linked with gradual emancipation. The resolution is soon seconded by seven other free states and Delaware. (Howe, 265)

Elizabeth Heyrick anonymously publishes the pamphlet Immediate, not Gradual Emancipation. (Hinks and McKivigan, xl)
 

1825-1829, John Quincy Adams Administration

1825-1842

Indian Removal in the Old Southwest (Five Civilized Tribes) and Old Northwest (Shawnees, Sac and Fox, Potawatomies, Miamis). In 1825, the War Department estimated that more than 50,000 Indians were in Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, and Mississippi. By 1838, more than 80,000 Indians had been removed to Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska. As of 1855, only 8,500 Indians lived east of the Mississippi. The Old Southwest together with Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana were basically Indian free by 1842. (Nugent, 229)

1825-1830

The first minstrel shows appear. (Howe, 639) [The minstrel show was a form of racist American entertainment developed in the early 19th century. Each show consisted of comedy sketches, variety acts, dances and musical performances depicting people specifically of African descent. The shows were performed by mostly white people wearing blackface or make-up to play the role of black people.]

1826

North Carolina prohibits immigration of free negroes. (Farnam, 199-200)

Florida Territory prohibits immigration of free negroes. (Farnam, 199-200)

1827

Gradual emancipation comes to an end in New York. Slavery abolished. (Howe, 174)

Founding of America’s first negro newspaper, Freedom’s Journal. (Hinks and McKivigan, xl)

Several slave states begin to invest in Liberia. They organize themselves independently of the ACS and established colonies in an effort to transport free negroes to Liberia. Approximately 11,000 negroes relocated before the movement ended. (Brown and Stentiford, 59)

1828

Moses Elias Levy, the most prominent Jewish abolitionist in the United States, publishes his Plan for the Abolition of Slavery. (Hinks and McKivigan, xl)

Abolitionist Benjamin Lundy begins publication of his newspaper, The Genius of Universal Emanicpation. (Hinks and McKivigan, xl)
 

1829-1837, Andrew Jackson Administration

1829

Illinois passes an anti-miscegenation law. (Farnam, 216)

1830

By 1830, whether by legislative, judicial, or constitutional action, negro slavery had been virtually abolished in the North. Of the 3,568 negro remaining in bondage, two-thirds resided in New Jersey. (Litwack, 14)

1831

Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, John Marshall rules that the Cherokees are a ‘domestic dependent nation’, not a sovereign state. (Howe, 355)

William Lloyd Garrison begins publishing The Liberator, an abolitionist newspaper, in Boston. (Hinks and McKivigan, xl)

After 1831, abolitionists would vigorously denounce colonization [i.e., sending blacks to Africa]. (Litwack, 27)

Before it is crushed, Nat Turner’s Rebellion leads to the death of sixty whites in Southampton County, Virginia. (Hinks and McKivigan, xl)

Tennessee prohibits immigration of free negroes. (Farnam, 199-200)

1832

Following the Nat Turner slave rebellion, Virginia debates colonization of slaves and free blacks abroad. Both sides in the debate agree that Virginia should be a ‘white man’s country’. (Howe, 326)

Founding of the New England Anti-Slavery Society (NEASS) in Boston. (Hinks and McKivigan, xl)

Alabama prohibits immigration of free negroes. (Farnam, 199-200)

Formation of racially integrated Boston Female Anti-Slavery Society. (Hinks and McKivigan, xl)

1833

American writer Lydia Maria Childs publishes An Appeal in Favor of That Class of Americans Called Africans. (Hinks and McKivigan, xl)

The American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS) is founded in Philadelphia; the group favors the immediate emancipation of American slaves. (Hinks and McKivigan, xl)

1834

Massachusetts repeals its anti-miscegenation law. (Farnam, 216)

1835-1842

Second Seminole War. (Howe, 516)

1835

The word ‘white’ is added to North Carolina’s constitutional requirement. (Keyssar, 55)

An extensive postal campaign by the American Anti-Slavery Society uses the postal system to send abolitionist literature throughout the country and especially into the south. (Hinks and McKivigan, xl)

Alexis de Tocqueville, a French traveller in the United States of the 1830s, publishes his Democracy in America, in which he calls slavery ‘evil’.

1836

Anglos outnumber Hispanics ten to one in Texas. (Howe, 660)

Battle of the Alamo. (Howe, 665)

Texas independence declared. Anglo-Texans almost exclusively Southerners and wage race war against mestizos. Northerners regard Texas as an outpost of slavery. Their opposition prevents the annexation of Texas under the Van Buren administration. (Howe, 665-666, 670)

Founding of the New York Committee of Vigilance, one of the most radical negro abolition societies in the United States. (Hinks and McKivigan, xl)

In its decision on Commonwealth v. Aves, the Massachusetts Supreme Court sets an important precedent by declaring that slavery cannot exist in Massachusetts except as it is regarded by the U.S. Constitution; thus, any slave brought to the state was immediately freed and the only slaves that could exist in Massachusetts were fugitive slaves whose return was mandated by the federal Fugitive Slave Act. (Hinks and McKivigan, xl)
 

1837-1841, Martin Van Buren Administration

1837

An angry mob in Illinois murders abolitionist publisher Elijah P. Lovejoy as he attempts to prevent destruction of his press. (Hinks and McKivigan, xli)

1838-1839

Deporation of Cherokees to Oklahoma. (Howe, 416)

1838

David Ruggles publishes the first negro magazine in the U.S., the Mirror of Liberty. (Hinks and McKivigan, xli)

1839

Texas ethnically cleanses Creeks, Cherokees, and other Indians from east Texas. (Nugent, 155)

Formation in the United States of the antislavery Liberty Party. (Hinks and McKivigan, xli)

Abolitionists Theodore Dwight Weld, Angelina Grimke Weld, and Sarah Grimke publish their antislavery pamphlet, American Slavery As It Is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses. (Hinks and McKivigan, xli)

1840

Brothers Lewis and Arthur Tarpan found the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society. (Hinks and McKivigan, xlii)

 
1841-1845, John Tyler Administration

1841

Former president John Quincy Adams delivers final arguments before the Supreme Court in defence of the thirty-four negro captives from the Amistad. The U.S. Supreme Court rules that the Amistad captives were never legally slaves and thus are free to return to Africa. (Hinks and McKivigan, xlii)

1842

The Anglo-American Webster-Ashburton Treaty establishes the Africa Squadron, an American naval squadron charged with patrolling the west coast of Africa to intercept any American vessels illegally engaged in the slave trade. (Hinks and McKivigan, xlii)

1843

4,291 American negroes have settled in Liberia; over ten thousand more would come before the Civil War. (Howe, 262)

Reverend Stephen Symonds Foster publishes The Brotherhood of Thieves, or a True Picture of the American Church, a searing indictment of American evangelical Christians for their complicity in the sin of slavery. (Hinks and McKivigan, xlii)

1844

Ralph Waldo Emerson gives an important speech, commemorating the tenth anniversary of emancipation in the British West Indies, affirming the human dignity of negroes. (Howe, 625)

1845-1855

New York, Ohio, Indiana, and Wisconsin reaffirm racial exclusion of negroes from the polls in constitutional conventions or popular referenda. (Keyssar, 55)

1845

Former slave Frederick Douglass publishes his influential Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, Written by Himself. (Hinks and McKivigan, xlii)

Abolitionist Lysander Spooner publishes the first part of his famous work, The Unconstitutionality of Slavery; the second part of the work appears in 1847.
 

1845-1849, James K. Polk Administration

1846-48, Mexican War

The Mexican War leads to the annexation of much Western territory, including California, thereby igniting much controversy over the expansion of slavery. (Davis, xiv)

1846-1847

Wilmot Proviso passed repeatedly by the House of Representatives. Called the ‘White Man’s Proviso’, Wilmot’s declared purpose was to ‘preserve free white labor a fair country, a rich inheritance, where the sons of toil, of my own race and own color, can live without the disgrace which association with negro slavery brings free labor’. Endorsed by ten Northern state legislatures. (Howe, 767-768)

1846

War breaks out between the United States and Mexico. (Hinks and McKivigan, xlii)

1847

Former slave Frederick Douglass publishes the first issue of his abolitionist newspaper, North Star. (Hinks and McKivigan, xlii)

Liberia, the West African colony of resettled negroes, becomes independent. (Hinks and McKivigan, xlii)

1848

Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo is signed, ending the Mexican-American War and transferring large tracts of territory from Mexico to the United States. (Hinks and McKivigan, xliii) Mexican Cession of the American Southwest. (Nugent, 187)

The first women’s rights convention held in the United States, the Seneca Falls Convention, meets in Seneca Falls, New York. (Hinks and McKivigan, xliii)

 

1849-1850, Zachary Taylor Administration

1850s

Martin R. Delany leads a ‘Back to Africa’ movement.

1850

The federal census first begins taking note of mulattoes. (Brown and Stentiford, 534)

Origin of ‘separate but equal’ doctrine in Robert v. the City of Boston. (Brown and Stentiford, 106)

With assistance from other abolitionists, illiterate former slave Sojournor Truth publishes her memoirs, The Narrative of Sojournor Truth: A Northern Slave. (Hinks and McKivigan, xliii)

In a speech delivered on a debate on the Compromise of 1850, Senator William H. Seward speaks of a ‘higher law’ beyond the Constitution, i.e., God’s law, that demands no compromise with slavery. (Hinks and McKivigan, xliii)

1851

New Iowa constitution omits its anti-miscegenation clause. (Farnam, 216)

Indian Appropriations Act.

Former slave Sojournor Truth delivers her famous speech, ‘Ar’nt I a Woman?’, at the women’s convention in Ohio. (Hinks and McKivigan, xliii)

1852

Harriet Beecher Stowe publishes her controversial novel, Uncle Tom’s Cabin. (Hinks and McKivigan, xliii)

1854

Founding of the Republican Party. (Brown and Stentiford, 678)

Escaped slave Anthony Burns is arrested in Boston under the provisions of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850; despite demonstrations on his behalf, Burns is returned under guard to Virginia, although Boston abolitionists later purchase his freedom. (Hinks and McKivigan, xliii)

1855

Only five states do not discriminate against negroes in voting rights: Maine, Massachusetts, Vermont, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire.

These states contain only 4% of America’s free black population. Negroes also prohibited from voting in U.S. territories. (Keyssar, 55)

1856

American pacifist Elihu Burritt publishes A Plan for Brotherly Co-Partnership of the North and South for the Peaceful Extinction of Slavery. (Hinks and McKivigan, xliv)

Abolitionist John Brown and his sons murder five proslavery settlers at Pottawatomie Creek in Kansas in retaliation for the sack of Lawrence. (Hinks and McKivigan, xliv)

1857

George Fitzhugh publishes his most famous proslavery volume, Cannibals All! or Slaves Without Masters. (Hinks and McKivigan, xliv)

Hinton Rowan Helper publishes his controversial book, The Impending Crisis of the South and How to Meet It, which decries the economic effects of slavery on the South and vehemently attacks the region, the Democratic Party, and negroes. (Hinks and McKivigan, xliv)

1858

Lincoln-Douglas debates in Illinois. (Davis, xv)

1859

Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species. (Howe, 466)

1860

436,000 slaves in Mississippi. Negroes account for over 55% of Mississippi’s population. (Brown and Stentiford, 536)

November 6 – Abraham Lincoln becomes the first Republican elected president. (Zuczek, xlix)

December 20 – South Carolina secedes from the federal Union. (Zuczek, xlix)

1861-1865, American Civil War

Abraham Lincoln declares the Civil War a ‘white man’s fight’ and says that no negroes, free or slaves, would be accepted into the Union forces, but reneges on his policy in 1862 due to mounting losses. Negroes fight in segregated units under white commanders. (Brown and Stentiford, 282)
 

1861-1865, Abraham Lincoln Administration

1861

January-June – Ten other slaves states secede from the Union. (Zuczek, xlix)

Jefferson Davis begins his term as president of the Confederate States of America, whose constitution gave recognition and protection to ‘the institution of negro slavery’. (Davis, xv)

1862

Battle of Antietam, Maryland, between Generals Robert E. Lee and George B. McClellan gives Lincoln encouragement to issue Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation. (Davis, xv)

1864

The term ‘miscegenation’ appears for the first time in an anonymous pamphlet, Miscegenation: The Theory of the Blending of the Races, Applied to the American White Man and Negro. (Brown and Stentiford, 526)
 

1865-1869, Andrew Johnson Administration

1865

Civil War ends; slavery officially abolished (Thirteenth Amendment); KKK formed.

January 31 – Congress passes the Thirteenth Amendment, which will formally abolish slavery in the United States. It is sent to the states for ratification. (Zuczek, li)

April 14 – President Lincoln is shot while watching a play at Ford’s Theater in Washington, D.C. (Zuczek, li)

South Carolina – Miscegenation Statute prohibited marriage between a white person and a person of color. (Jim Crow History.org)

1866

June 13 – Congress passes the Fourteenth Amendment and sends it to the states for ratification. (Zuczek, lii)

1868

South Carolina – Barred school segregation (Constitution). All public schools and universities to be free and open to all persons regardless of race or color. (Jim Crow History.org)

End of Indian Wars on Southern Plains. (Nugent, 229)

July 28 – The Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified, granting equal protection under the law to all American citizens. It also confers citizenship to every person born in the United States, including former slaves. (Brown and Stentiford, xxiii)

1868-1871

The South is swept by a wave of Ku Klux Klan terrorism. (Keyssar, 105)

Civil Rights Act of 1871 (‘Ku Klux Klan Act’).
 

1869-1877, Ulysses S. Grant Administration

1869

February 25 – Congress passes the Fifteenth Amendment and sends it to the states for ratification. (Zuczek, liv)

South Carolina – Barred public accommodation segregation (Constitution)
Gave all classes of citizens without regard to race or color equal access to public, legal and political privileges. Included the right to intermarry. (Jim Crow History.org)

1870

Black men (and ostensibly other male ethnic/racial minorities) officially given voting rights with the passage of the Fifteenth Amendment

California finally recognizes Mexican-Americans as citizens. (Howe, 810)

1871

Mississippi – Barred anti-miscegenation (State Code), omitted miscegenation or intermarriage statute. (Jim Crow History.org)

1874

All of New England has outlawed de jure segregation in schools. (Fitzgerald, 171)

June – Appearance of White League in Louisiana, terrorist organization aimed at overthrowing Republican Kellogg. (Zuczek, lvi)

August 30 – White League murders Republicans in the Coushatta Massacre. (Zuczek, lvi)

1875

Rough beginning of the Jim Crow Era.

1876

July 7 – Hamburg Massacre in South Carolina, as election campaigning puts Republican negro militiamen against white conservative gun clubs. (Zuczek, lvii)

September 16-19 – In South Carolina a three day, countywide killing spree conducted by white gun clubs earns the name the Ellenton Riot; ends with direct intervention by U.S. infantry units. (Zuczek, lvii)

October 16-17 – White attack on a Republican meeting, called the Cainhoy Riot, leads Grant to send more federal troops to South Carolina for the election. (Zuczek, lvii)
 

1877-1881, Rutherford B. Hayes Administration

1877

The Compromise of 1877 removes the last of the federal troops from the former Confederate states. Reconstruction ends, but the Jim Crow period is not underway fully. (Brown and Stentiford, xxiii)

End of Reconstruction.

1877-1965, Jim Crow America

1878

Mississippi – Education (Statute) prohibited teaching white and black children in the same school. (Jim Crow History.org)

1880

Mississippi – Miscegenation (State Code) revised state code to declare marriage between white persons and Negroes or mulattoes or persons of one-quarter or more Negro blood as ‘incestuous and void’. Penalty: Fine up to $500, or imprisonment in the penitentiary up to ten years, or both. (Jim Crow History.org)

In re Camille, federal district court in Oregon denies citizenship to a half white/half Indian man on the basis of race.
 

1881, James A. Garfield Administration

1881

Tennessee enacts the first law requiring racial segregation on public trains. (Brown and Stentiford, xxiii)
 

1881-1885, Chester A. Arthur Administration

1882-1900

1,700+ negroes lynched in America. (Blum, 3)

1882

The Chinese Exclusion Act drastically limits the number of Chinese immigrants to the United States and requires all Chinese residents who leave the United States to reapply for reentry. (Brown and Stentiford, xxiii)

1883

Pace v. Alabama, Supreme Court upholds the constitutionality of Alabama’s anti-miscegenation law. (Brown and Stentiford, 535)

1884

Elk v. Wilkins, Supreme Court rules that Indians, as tribal citizens, were not covered by the Fourteenth Amendment and were not citizens of the United States. (Brown and Stentiford, 580)

Arkansas – Miscegenation (State Code). All marriages of white persons with Negroes or mulattoes declared illegal. (Jim Crow History.org)

1885

Florida – Miscegenation (Constitution) ‘forever’ prohibited marriages between whites and blacks, or between a ‘white person and a person of Negro descent to the fourth generation inclusive’. (Jim Crow History.org)
 

1885-1889, Grover Cleveland Administration

1886

Surrender of Geronimo and the Apaches ends the Indian Wars in the Southwest. (Nugent, 229)

1887

Disenfranchisement of native Hawaiians. (Nugent, 264)
 

1889-1893, Benjamin Harrison Administration

1890-1910

Blues, ragtime, and jazz develop in Southern cities, particularly New Orleans, as the most popular music forms amongst negroes. (Brown and Stentiford, xxiv)

Franz Boas’s anthropological work eventually developed the notion of culture as distinct from race. (Brown and Stentiford, 529)

1890

The Indian Naturalization Act grants U.S. citizenship to Indians in certain areas under certain conditions. (Brown and Stentiford, 580)

In re Hong Yen Chang, federal district court in California denies American citizenship to Chinese on the basis of race.

1892

April – In response to anti-negro violence and the rise of lynchings across the South, negro journalist Ida B. Wells begins an anti-lynching crusade that grows to international dimensions. (Zuczek, lix)

The Geary Act extends the Chinese Exclusion Act and required all Chinese residents of the United States to carry a resident permit. Failure to carry the permit at all times was punishable by deportation or a year at hard labour. In addition, Chinese were not allowed to bear witness in court, and could not receive bail in habeas corpus proceedings. (Wikipedia)
 

1893-1897, Grover Cleveland Administration

1894

In re Saito, federal district court in Massachusetts denies American citizenship to the Japanese on the basis of race.

In re Po, federal district court in New York denies American citizenship to Burmese on the basis of race.

1895-1900

An average of 101 negroes are lynched per year. (Klarman, From Jim Crow to Civil Rights, 3)

1895

South Carolina – Miscegenation (Constitution) prohibited marriage between a white person with a Negro or mulatto, or a person who had one-eighth or more Negro blood. (Jim Crow History.org)

1896

Mississippi – Education (Statute) separate districts established for the schools of white and black children. (Jim Crow History.org)

The Democratic Party triumphs in the South by promising white supremacy at the polls. (Brown and Stentiford, xxiv)

1897

In re Rodriguez, federal district court in Texas denies American citizenship to Mexicans on the basis of race.
 

1897-1901, William McKinley Administration

Spanish-American War, 1898-1899

Acquistion of Hawaii, Wake Island, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. (Nugent, 240)

1898

United States v. Wong Kim Ark, Supreme Court rules that the U.S. government could not deny citizenship to anyone born in the United States, even someone of Chinese ancestry. (Oyez)

1899

In re Kanaka Nian, a federal district court denies citizenship to native Hawaiians on the basis of race.

December 18 – Supreme Court, in Cummings v. Richmond County (Georgia, declares segregation in the schools is legal under the Fourteenth Amendment. (Zuczek, lix)

1899-1902, American-Filipino War

1900

Race riot in New Orleans is sparked by a shoot-out between the police and a negro labourer. Twenty thousand people are drawn into the riot that lasted four days. (Brown and Stentiford, xxiv)

Race riot in New York City. (Brown and Stentiford, 128)
 

1901-1909, Theodore Roosevelt Administration

1901

Alabama – Miscegenation (Constitution) declared that the legislature could never pass any law authorizing or legalizing ‘any marriage between any white person and a Negro, or descendant of a Negro’. (Jim Crow History.org)

Between 1901 and 1947, the California state government enacted laws that created segregated communities for ‘Asian Americans’. (Brown and Stentiford, 49)

1902

Thomas Dixon, Jr. publishes his response to Harriet Beecher Stowe, The Leopard’s Spots: An Historical Romance of the White Man’s Burden, 1865-1900, a best-selling novel which introduces readers to the Negro Problem and trauma that the North inflicted upon the South during Reconstruction. (Brown and Stentiford, 237)

1904

Race riot in Springfield, Ohio. (Brown and Stentiford, 128)

Congress bars Chinese immigration with amendments to the Chinese Exclusion Act. (Brown and Stentiford, 53)

Kentucky passes the ‘Day Law’ which requires racial segregation of all public and private schools. (Brown and Stentiford, 438)

1905

The Niagara Movement forms. An organization of black intellectuals who opposed Booker T. Washington and his Tuskegee Machine, the Niagara movement promoted negro political equality and voting rights. (Brown and Stentiford, xxv)

1906

Founding of U.S. based journal, Eugenics and Social Welfare Bulletin. (Brown and Stentiford, 530)

Rumours of negro assaults on white women lead to a race riot in Atlanta. The riot claims the lives of 25 negroes and one white. Hundreds are injured. (Brown and Stentiford, xxv)

Editor’s note: Compare it to the way today’s Britons react—like lobotomised eunuchs—when hundreds of pubescent English roses are raped by Orcs.

1908

Louisiana – Miscegenation (Statute). Concubinage between the Caucasian or white race and any person of the Negro or black race is a felony. Penalty: Imprisonment from one month to one year, with or without hard labour. (Jim Crow History.org)
 

1909-1913, William Howard Taft Administration

Federal patronage of negroes sharply curtailed under President Taft. (Brown and Stentiford, 679)

1909

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People is founded in New York City. Some of the members of the Niagara Movement contribute to the founding of the NAACP. The board of directors of the NAACP includes several white progressives. (Brown and Stentiford, xxv)

1910-1930

‘Great Migration’ of 500,000 negroes to the North. (Gilmore, 17)

1911

Franz Boas (Jew) publishes The Mind of Primitive Man, a turning point in anthropological thought, ushering in the notion of cultural relativism and the ethnological method. (Brown and Stentiford, 529)

1912

First International Conference on Eugenics. (Brown and Stentiford, 530)
 

Woodrow Wilson Administration, 1913-1921

1913

Anti-Defamation League (ADL) formed.

Massive expansion of federal government with the passage of the Sixteenth Amendment, which formed the IRS.

U.S. v. Sandoval, Supreme Court describes American Indians as ‘essentially, a simple, uninformed and inferior people’ incapable of exercising the privileges of citizenship. (Brown and Stentiford, 581)

Florida – Education (Statute): Unlawful for white teachers to teach Negroes in Negro schools, and for Negro teachers to teach in white schools. (Jim Crow History.org)

1914-1918, First World War

World War I engulfs Europe, and involves much of the world through colonial empires and alliances. (Brown and Stentiford, xxv)

1915

Texas – Miscegenation (State Code): The penalty for intermarriage is imprisonment in the penitentiary from two to five years. (Jim Crow History.org)

Lynching of Leo Frank in Georgia. (Gilmore, 197)

Film director D.W. Griffith adapts several novels by Thomas Dixon, Jr. into the nation’s first modern motion picture, The Birth of a Nation, which depicts the Ku Klux Klan as heroic defenders of white womanhood and civilization. (Brown and Stentiford, xxv)

Editor’s note: Again, compare it to the worst generation of whites since prehistory.

Rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan in Stone Mountain, Georgia. (Brown and Stentiford, 239)

1916

Founding of U.S. based journal, Eugenical News. (Brown and Stentiford, 530)

Madison Grant publishes The Passing of the Great Race. (Brown and Stentiford, 562)

1917-1920 First Red Scare (widespread anti-Jewish sentiment because they are correctly associated with Communism and revolutionary activities).

1917

Buchanan v. Warley, Supreme Court invalidates laws requiring racial segregation of neighborhoods. (Brown and Stentiford, 114)

First use of ‘racialist’ in the English language. (Online Etymology Dictionary)

1919

Race riots across the nation claim more than 200 lives. The biggest riot is in Chicago. (Brown and Stentiford, xxv) Race riot in Charleston, South Carolina; in Longview, Texas. (Brown and Stentiford, 128)

‘Red Summer’ – an estimated 25 race riots in the United States. (Brown and Stentiford, 128)

1920

The Nineteenth Amendment passes, granting the right to vote to women. (Brown and Stentiford, xxv)

Lothrop Stoddard publishes The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy.
 

1921-1923, Warren Harding Administration

1921

Second International Conference on Eugenics. (Brown and Stentiford, 530)

A race riot in Tulsa, Oklahoma, nearly wipes out the entire negro area, including the ‘Black’ Wall Street. (Brown and Stentiford, xxv)

Arkansas – Miscegenation (Statute) prohibits cohabitation between whites and blacks and defines the term ‘Negro’ as any person who has any Negro blood in his veins. (Jim Crow History.org)

Editor’s note: The right way to define him: the zero-drop rule.

1922

Henry Ford’s The International Jew published.

Ozawa v. United States, Supreme Court confirms the policy which refused American citizenship to Japanese immigrants. (Brown and Stentiford, 401) Editor’s note: The US wasn’t crazy a hundred years ago!
 

1923-1929, Calvin Coolidge Administration

1923

Rosewood Massacre in Florida. (Brown and Stentiford, 304)

Dyer federal anti-lynching bill defeated by Southern opposition in Congress. (Brown and Stentiford, 197)

United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind, Supreme Court rules that Indians (subcons) are not white and denies citizenship to ‘Indian-Americans’.

1924

Immigration Act of 1924 restricts immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe. (Brown and Stentiford, 53)

1925-1935

American Communists alone arguing for complete equality of the races. (Gilmore, 4)

1925

Psychologists begin to attack the concept of inherent mental differences between racial groups. (Barkan, 5)

1926

Arthur Estabrook and Evan McDougle publish Mongrel Virginians: The Win Tribe. (Brown and Stentiford, 275)

Corrigan v. Buckley, Supreme Court upholds the constitutionality of racial covenants. (Brown and Stentiford, 720)

1927

Supreme Court rules in Lum v. Rice that ‘separate but equal’ applies to Asians and is within the discretion of the State in regulating its public schools and does not conflict with the 14th Amendment. (Brown and Stentiford, 235)

1928

Founding of U.S. based journal, Eugenics: A Journal of Race Betterment. (Brown and Stentiford, 530)

The Ku Klux Klan makes a large march down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C. (Brown and Stentiford, 445)

Anti-lynching bill dies in Congress. (Brown and Stentiford, 256)

American communists continue their campaign against segregation. The national platform of the CPUSA includes calls for full racial equality, the abolition of Jim Crow laws, enfranchisement of African Americans, integration of schools, juries, unions, and the military, a federal law against lynching, the end of chain gangs, and equal job opportunities and pay. (Brown and Stentiford, 177)
 

1929-1933, Herbert Hoover Administration

The crash of the stock market reveals serious problems with the American economy. (Brown and Stentiford, xxvi)

1930s

‘Raciology’ a vanishing vocation. (Barkan, 4)

Editor’s note: This is why the text by a Spaniard on racial classification is so important in my collection of essays (The Fair Race’s Darkest Hour). Raciology is a science that no longer exists in today’s ethnosuicidal West.

1930

The Hays Code prohibits depictions of miscegenation in Hollywood films. (Brown and Stentiford, 533)

Editor’s note: The prohibition was forgotten some decades later, within my lifetime. I still remember an episode in the late 1960s when Captain Kirk kisses a mulatta in Star Trek: the first time ever we saw such a thing on TV!

1932

Third International Conference on Eugenics. (Brown and Stentiford, 530)

First use of ‘racist’ as a noun in the English language. (Online Etymology Dictionary)

Franklin D. Roosevelt is elected president. His promise of a New Deal and a ‘Black Cabinet’ in 1933 attracts many negro voters to the Democratic Party. (Brown and Stentiford, xxvi)
 

1933-1945, Franklin Delano Roosevelt Administration

1933

NAACP begins its legal campaign to desegregate education. (Gilmore, 2)

1936

Pearson v. Murray, Maryland Supreme Court orders the University of Maryland Law School to admit negro students. (Brown and Stentiford, 112)

Jesse Owens wins four gold medals at the Summer Olympics in Berlin. (Brown and Stentiford, xxvi)

1937

Death of Madison Grant.

1938

The American Anthropological Association unanimously passes a resolution condemning racism. (Gilmore, 199)

1939-1945, Second World War

1939

Television is introduced to the American public at the New York World’s Fair. (Brown and Stentiford, 770)

Thomas Dixon, Jr. publishes his final novel, The Flaming Sword, which claims communism and miscegenation threaten to destroy America. (Brown and Stentiford, 239)

1940s

The University of Pennsylvania, the most racially egalitarian university in 1946, boasted only 40 negroes out of an institutional enrollment of 9,000. (Brown and Stentiford, 595)

1941-1945, Second World War (U.S. involvement)

The United States joins the Allies and wages war against the Axis Powers of Germany, Japan, and Italy in World War II.

1942-1945

Discrimation and internment against some Americans of Italian and German descent.
 

1945-1953, Harry Truman Administration

1945-1947

Note of the Editor: A true Holocaust perpetrated by the Allies against the Germans: the best-kept secret in modern history (pace Jared Taylor, the Nazis, not the American founding fathers, were the true defenders of the Aryan race).

Cold War, 1947-1991

1947

President Truman’s Committee on Civil Rights issues its 178-page report, ‘To Secure These Rights’. The report calls for laws requiring states to end discrimination in education, mandating a ban against discrimination in the armed services, laws to guarantee fair employment practices for blacks, federal prohibition of lynching, repeal of poll taxes and other discriminatory voting restrictions, denial of federal grants when discrimination in evidence, an expanded civil rights division at the Justice Department, creation of permanent civil rights commissions at the federal and state levels, specific federal ban on police brutality, and enforcement of a Supreme Court decision against restrictive real estate covenants. (Roberts and Klibanoff, 38)

1948

President Harry S. Truman orders the desegregation of the U.S. military with Executive Order 9981. (Brown and Stentiford, xxvi)

Perez v. Sharp, California Supreme Court strikes down California’s anti-miscegenation law. (Brown and Stentiford, 397)

1950s

The first segment of the Civil Rights Movement is underway by 1954.

Emergence of rock and roll music.

1950

Henderson v. United States, Supreme Court abolishes racial segregation in railroad dining cars. (Roberts and Klibanoff, 49)

Thirty states still have anti-miscegenation laws on the books. (Brown and Stentiford, 503)

Ralph Bunche becomes the first negro to win the Nobel Peace Prize. (Klarman, From Jim Crow, 3)

1952

The McCarran-Walter Act lifts the ban on Asian immigration established by the Asian Exclusion Act. (Brown and Stentiford, 54)
 

1953-1961, Dwight Eisenhower Administration

1954

The Supreme Court decides for the plantiffs in the landmark Brown v. Board of Education. The ruling makes illegal segregation and discrimination in the nation’s public schools. (Brown and Stentiford, xxvi)

1956

Gayle v. Browder, Supreme Court outlaws segregation in all public transportation. (Brown and Stentiford, 615)

1957

Allen v. Merrill, Indians gain the right to vote in Utah. (Brown and Stentiford, 581)

Clash in Little Rock, Arkansas, over the desegregation of Central High School. President Eisenhower dispatches federal troops to keep order and enforce desegregation. (Schuman et al, 54)

The Civil Rights Act of 1957 pledges the federal government to prosecute abuses of negro civil rights. (Brown and Stentiford, xxvii)

1958

Cooper v. Aaron, Supreme Court rules unanimously for integration to proceed immediately at Little Rock Central High School in Arkansas. (Brown and Stentiford, 186-187)

1959

George Lincoln Rockwell founds the American Nazi Party.

1960s-present

Editor’s note: Whites adopt anti-Nazism as their new religion and, throughout the entire West, hand over the zeitgeist of their culture to their ancestral enemies, the Jews.

1964

Civil Rights Act.

1967

Loving v. Virginia – miscegenation effectively legalized across the U.S.

1971

Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) formed.

2008

First black president elected in the United States.

2020

BLM riots are officially the most costly manmade damage to American property in history.

 

______ 卐 ______

 

Editor’s note: On The Unz Review, Robert Morgan commented today:

C.T.: Since you specialize in debunking what the racial right has to say about Lincoln, I’d like to hear your opinion on a classic American Renaissance article, republished this day in Jared Taylor’s webzine… Although I am not an expert in American history, I have the impression that he is telling things in a very biased way.

You’re right. A charitable way to put it is ‘biased’. I’d state more directly that it’s a package of lies designed to mislead. Take his statement that Jefferson freed no slaves. That’s just false. In his will he freed children of Sally Hemings, a quadroon who was his dead wife’s half sister and almost certainly his mistress. He was likely the father of those children.

Then we have Taylor’s telling of Jefferson’s supposed horror of race mixing. LOL! If he thought it so horrible, why did he engage in it?

He predictably mentions the American Colonization Society, but ‘forgets’ to tell his readers that it was in the ACS Charter that any ‘colonization’ [deportation in today’s vocabulary—Editor’s note] of negroes was to be on a voluntary basis only. Needless to say, the idea that all the negroes were going to leave voluntarily always was a joke. Perhaps some American Christians, who also claim to believe absurdities such as corpses coming back to life, were stupid enough to believe this would happen, but intelligent people such as the first few American presidents must have always known it was a ludicrous expectation.

He also brings up the Naturalization Act of 1790, which allowed only whites to become naturalized citizens, without explaining that naturalization was only one way for people to become citizens. Plenty of non-whites were made citizens by treaty, for example in the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, when the USA acquired lands from Mexico. Also, at the time the Constitution was being written, free negroes had already been allowed to become citizens in several of the 13 original states. Later Constitutional Amendments after the Civil War gave national citizenship and the vote to all of them.

He repeats the Kevin MacDonald spin on the 1965 immigration reform, without telling his readers that the 1924 Act it rescinded allowed for unlimited immigration from anywhere in the Western hemisphere. Imagine, if that provision had remained in force, every negro in Haiti and Brazil would now be living in the USA!

He quotes Henry Ward Beecher in one of his speeches collected in the book Patrtiotic Addresses:

Henry Ward Beecher, brother of Harriet Beecher Stowe who wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin, expressed the majority view: ‘Do your duty first to the colored people here; educate them, Christianize them, and then colonize them’.

But he again leaves out a crucial detail, namely that H.W. Beecher too advocated only a voluntary departure of the negroes. Beecher goes on to say that to even think of forcing them out for the benefit of whites would be a sin! (LOL, gotta love these Christian loonies!)

All in all, the article is just typical Jared Taylor BS. Since he makes his living from his website, I can only surmise that he thinks telling his readers what they want to hear increases donations.

At AmRen’s comments section, yesterday a commenter criticised Taylor’s article with these words: ‘Blah, blah, blah: Dissecting a speech [Lincoln’s] and a movement whose very purpose was intended to bring about abolition, the author will slice and dice the words until they are shown to mean Abraham Lincoln had the very opposite purpose in mind. But that’s what liberals do: lie’.

_________

(*) Brad Griffin’s sources:

David Brion Davis, Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006).

Winthrop D. Jordan, White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1968).

Christopher Lasch, The Revolt of the Elites: And the Betrayal of Democracy (New York and London: W.W. Norton & Co., 1995).

Howard Schuman, Charlotte Steeh, Lawrence Bobo, and Maria Krysan, Racial Attitudes in America: Trends and Interpretations, Revised Edition (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997).

Categories
Egalitarianism Hinduism Liberalism Racial studies Savitri Devi Souvenirs et réflexions d'une aryenne (book)

Reflections of an Aryan woman, 75

The opinion that Adolf Hitler was an agent of the diabolical forces, that his initiation was only a monstrous counter-initiation, and that his SS Order was only a sinister brotherhood of black magicians, is—without a doubt!—widespread among anti-Hitlerians more or less daubed in occultism (and there is no shortage of them).

The most convincing argument against this seems to me to come from India. In the West, the confusion in terms of knowledge of the principles is such that it’s difficult to say whether there is still a group that can legitimately claim a true filiation with the Tradition. There is therefore no point of comparison between the attitude of true initiates and that of charlatans. According to René Guénon, practically all societies in Europe that claim to be ‘initiatory’ nowadays would be classified under the latter heading. However, it is their members who make themselves heard, who agitate, who take a stand against Hitlerism as Louis Pauwels and the Jew Bergier did, whenever they could, in the magazine Planète. Incidentally, I don’t know of a single European group interested in esoteric doctrines which is not anti-Hitler (I could be wrong, of course; I would like to be wrong on this point).

But the same is not true in India.

For one thing, one is faced with a completely different ‘spiritual landscape’ there. Instead of dealing with groups with more or less ‘initiatory’ claims, moving amid a huge profane society, infatuated with experimental science and ‘progress’ and concerned above all with its material well-being, we are in the presence of a traditional civilisation, very much alive despite the growing influence of technology. The man of the masses, not poisoned by propaganda since he still enjoys the ‘blessing of illiteracy’ (to use an expression dear to the Führer), thinks more about it than the individual of the same social level in the West—which among us is not an achievement! He thinks about it, above all, in the spirit of Tradition as witnessed by the young Sudra whose story I recalled at the beginning of these Memories and Reflections.

The Hindu who has been to school, and even the one who has studied in Europe or the USA, is not hostile to Tradition. He is familiar with the idea of natural hierarchy, of biological, and therefore racial, heredity intimately linked to the karma of each individual. And in the vast majority of cases he lives according to the immemorial rules of his caste—even when the ‘progressive’ government of a so-called ‘free’ India (in reality: a grotesque copy of Western democracies) has proclaimed the abolition of castes and imposed universal suffrage. In some cases, of course, he brings back subversive ideas or shocking habits back from his contacts with foreigners. But then he is scorned by his own, and orthodox society turns away from him—no government having the power to force matters, he has to accept it whether he likes it or not.

As for the traditional initiatory groups and the isolated masters of true secret science, they continue to exist as in the past: in silence, unnoticed by the general public. They keep themselves, in principle, out of the whirlwind of politics, and don’t give press conferences. At most, a word, a reflection formulated with a visitor who respects the Tradition, even if he is not an initiate himself, can sometimes let us guess where the earthly sympathies of this or that sage.

There are also, as is to be expected in an age of universal decadence, people who profess ‘spirituality’ and groups who claim to be transcendent masters and claim to transmit the so-called ‘initiation’ without having a shred of a right to it. There is no shortage of charlatans in orange tunics—or naked, with their bodies covered in ashes—who hang around temples, especially in places of pilgrimage, living by begging or swindling, posing as ‘gurus’ to credulous widows. They are rascals but of small scale and limited harmfulness.

Infinitely more dangerous are those individuals or groups who work to bring to India—as far as possible—the anthropocentrism inherent in religious or political doctrines influenced more or less directly by Judaism or by the Jews. By this I mean all those individuals or groups who, under cover of a false fidelity to Tradition, which they twist and disfigure as they please, preach egalitarian principles, democracy, and the horror of all violence, even if it is detached when this is exerted against ‘men’, whoever they may be—whereas the monstrous exploitation of animals (and trees) by man hardly disturbs them (if they are not completely indifferent there, and even if they don’t justify it!).

I am thinking of all those who claim to pay homage to the ‘true ancient wisdom’ by obstinately denying any natural racial hierarchy, by condemning the caste system to the core, by preaching the ‘right’ of people of different races to marry each other if they believe that in this way they will find their ‘happiness’. I am thinking of those who would like to replace, among Hindus, the old caste privileges with privileges based on ‘education’ (in the Western sense of the word) and the concern for metaphysical orthodoxy with an ever-increasing preoccupation with the ‘social’, the ‘economic’, the ‘improvement of the living conditions for the masses’. I am thinking of the organisers of ‘Parliaments of religions’, of the advocates of a fusion between ‘East and West’ at the expense of the spirit of Tradition, which was originally common to both, and which only Hinduism has preserved as the basis of civilisation; of the missionaries of a universal morality centred on ‘man’, as conceived by both the Christian and the rationalist West.

The ‘mission’ which claims to be inspired by the divine Ramakrishna—a true initiate who lived in the last century—seems to be moving more and more in this direction, under the influence of Western benefactors, especially Americans. But this trend is not new.

More than a hundred and fifty years ago it emerged with the foundation of the Brahmo Samaj, a society of deists deeply influenced by their English university education and the Protestant form of Christianity. This sect, under the pretext of bringing Hinduism back to a so-called ‘original purity’, interpreted it according to that ‘modern spirit’ whose hold on Europe René Guénon so rightly deplored. But, as Guénon says again, its adherents are, despite the social position and, what is more, the high caste of the best known of them, rejected by the orthodox Hindus. The latter refuse to give them their daughters in marriage or to accept their daughters for their sons. And in the villages they would not accept a glass of water from them—and, I repeat, no government could force them to do so. This attitude comes from the fact that the Brahmo Samajists reject the principle of the caste system: the unequal ‘dignity’ of men, according to their heredity. It also comes from the fact that the Brahmo Samaj is not Indian any more than any other like-minded sect is India (for example, the Arya Samaj, which is ‘Arya’ in name only because it also rejects the idea of a natural hierarchy of races).

Categories
New Testament Racial studies Savitri Devi Schutzstaffel (SS) Souvenirs et réflexions d'une aryenne (book) Third Reich Tom Sunic

Reflections of an Aryan woman, 74

One of the earliest epigraphically attested reference to the word
arya occurs in the 6th-century b.c.e. Behistun inscription.

Moreover, it was not only with the initiates of the Forbidden City of Lhasa (and perhaps with the Dalai Lama himself) that the spiritual elite of the SS Order—which was that of a new traditional civilisation in the making, if not currently in gestation—sought contact. To my humble knowledge, there were also similar meetings in India: meetings that few people in the West suspect, quite apart from the political conversations that may have taken place with certain Hindu leaders, such as Subhas Chandra Bose, in India and Germany before and during the Second World War.
 

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Editor’s Note: With the benefit of hindsight, it is relatively easy to see that this esoteric search was a fool’s errand. Given what happened in real history, what the Nazi elite ought to have studied was already written in the German language. I refer to the texts by Nietzsche that we quote at the appendix to the masthead of this site (pages 84-90, here).

Now that Christian axiology has reached its apex, albeit in secularised form, it is clear that Evil, with a capital ‘E’, always came from Judeo-Christian ethical injunctions in secularised form.

It is not that the 21st-century priest of the sacred words is feeling superior to the Nazis of the previous century. Rather, they lacked the perspective that we have so far. For example, what we said last November about the evangelist Mark, who invented the fictitious figure of Jesus just after the Romans destroyed the Temple in Jerusalem, is something that no German Nazi ever thought of.

The exegesis of the New Testament had to develop to the degree that it has developed today—and I am referring to the non-existence of the historical Jesus—for us to realise that the whole New Testament thing was, from the beginning, a very subversive text aimed against Rome (this is very clear in the last book of the Bible).

There was nothing to be looking for in Tibet or India. The Third Reich would have done well to take New Testament studies where Richard Carrier has recently taken them. But as the Irish commenter Gaedhal said on this site, American racialists are even more primitive than liberal Christians in that they don’t even want to know that the New Testament has been subjected to rigorous scrutiny since the German Enlightenment (cf. what we have been saying about Reimarus). Apparently, I am the only one who has pointed out these studies in the racialist forums of the new century. But let’s move on to Savitri….
 

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Since 1935, a cultural magazine, The New Mercury, had been published in Calcutta, very ably edited by Sri Asit Krishna Mukherji, in collaboration with Sri Vinaya Datta and some others. The Fuhrer’s speeches, of which the official press, both in English and Bengali, reported only excerpts, were spread in extenso, especially if they were, as was often the case, of interest beyond ‘politics’. One of them, which particularly caught my attention at the time, was on the subject of ‘Architecture and the Nation’. But the said journal also published studies on everything that could tend to bring to light a deep, non-political connection, going back very far and very high, between the traditional Hindu civilisation as it has never ceased to exist, and the traditional Germanic civilisation, as it had existed, long before Christianity, and aspired to be reborn. These studies revealed in their authors, in addition to the indispensable archaeological erudition, serious knowledge of cosmic symbolism. Several of them were, needless to say, centred on the Swastika.

They seemed to show, indirectly, the exceptional character of a great modern state which recognised as its own a sign of such universal significance; engraved it on all its public monuments, and printed it on all its banners. At the same time, they suggested the aspiration of this great State to renew contact with the primordial Tradition, from which Europe had already detached itself for centuries, but of which India had kept the invaluable deposit.
 

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Editor’s note: Let me clarify this matter a little more. All this searching for India’s Aryan roots is good. What was wrong is not seeing the Christian enemy next door: the Anglo-American slaves of Judeo-Christian ethics, who would murder this revived Aryan baby through the Hellstorm Holocaust (read Tom Sunic’s Homo Americanus). In other words: the priority should have been to know their fanatic enemy, the Judaized Anglo-Americans, and looking for the Aryan roots should’ve been a secondary matter. Savitri continues:

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I have no evidence that the Ahnenerbe played any part in the publication of the New Mercury. This seems to me all the less likely as this special section of the SS was itself only founded in 1935, the same year as the said magazine. But I know that the latter was at least partly financially supported by the government of the Third Reich. Germans, and representatives—German or not—of German firms in India were supposed to subscribe to it. And at least one of them, to my knowledge, was recalled to Germany, having been dismissed from the direction of the branch which he governed for years, for having refused to do so and declaring that ‘this new-style propaganda’ (sic) did not interest him.

The founder and editor of the periodical, Sri A. K. Mukherji, remained in close contact with Herr von Selzam, the German Consul General in Calcutta, as long as he remained in that post. And this official representative of Adolf Hitler gave him, on the eve of his departure, a document addressed to the German authorities, in which it was specified in no uncertain terms that ‘no one in Asia had rendered the Reich services comparable to his’. I saw this document. I read it again and again, with joy, with pride, as an Aryan and a Hitlerite, and as the wife of Sri A. K. Mukherji. I have already alluded to it in these reflections.

I can’t say whether or not the services referred to therein went beyond the rather narrow confines of Sri A. K. Mukherji’s activities as editor of a fortnightly, traditionalist journal, both Hindu and pro-German. It would seem that they had outgrown them, for the journal had lasted only two years; the British authorities having banned it towards the end of 1937, shortly after the definitive ‘turning point’ in the evolution of British policy towards the Reich. In any case, I didn’t know Sri A. K. Mukherji personally at that time: his name only evoked, for me, the existence of the only magazine of distinctly Hitlerian tendencies that I knew in India. But one thing leads me to believe that his knowledge of esoteric Hitlerism, i.e. of the deep connection of the Führer’s secret doctrine with the eternal tradition, was in no way comparable to the vague impressions I might have had on the same subject. In the very first conversation I had with him, after having had the honour of being introduced to him—on 9 January 1938—, less than two years later, he was destined to give me his name and his protection, and asked me incidentally what I thought of Dietrich Eckart.

I knew that this was the author of the famous poem Deutschland erwache, the fighter of the very first days of the Kampfzeit, who died a few weeks after the failed putsch of 9 November 1923 at the age of fifty-five: the comrade to whom Adolf Hitler had dedicated the second part of Mein Kampf. I was still unaware of the existence of the Thülegesellschaft, and was therefore far from suspecting the role that the poet of the national revolution had played with the Führer.

I enthusiastically displayed my pitifully little erudition. My interlocutor, who had rendered, and would soon render, to the Third Reich (and later to its Japanese allies) ‘services comparable to those of no other’, smiled and moved on to another subject.

Categories
Racial studies Savitri Devi Souvenirs et réflexions d'une aryenne (book)

Reflections of an Aryan woman, 73

(Left, André Brissaud’s Hitler et l’Ordre Noir.) It is probably unnecessary to point out that the ‘transparency’ referred to here is not material, and therefore not visible. It represents a state of being more subtle than the one we know; more open to direct contact with the intangible and even the informal. In other words, the Hyperboreans, holders of the primordial Tradition, would have been capable of intellectual intuition to a degree that we cannot conceive.

Who were they? And, if they really existed, where did their territory extend? The more or less evocative allusions made to them by the ancients—by Seneca in his Medea; by Pliny the Elder, Virgil, Diodorus of Sicily, Herodotus, Homer (in the Odyssey) and the author or authors of Genesis, and especially of the enigmatic Book of Enoch—are rather vague, though all referring to the ‘Great North’.

And the evocation of the extreme ‘whiteness’ of the Hyperboreans, of the unspeakable beauty of their women and the ‘extraordinary gifts of perspicacity’[1] of some of them, would make one think of an Aryan race immensely superior to the average of the present-day Norsemen, which is not surprising since it concerns a past that is lost in the mists of time.

But there is more: the scholar Bal Gangadhar Tilak, better known as Lokomanya Tilak, a Hindu scholar and sage,[2] has, in his book The Arctic Home in the Vedas, very clearly linked the oldest tradition of India to a region located in the high latitudes; a region knowing both the long polar night and the midnight sun, and the aurora borealis: a region where the stars neither rise nor set, but move, or seem to move, circularly along the horizon.

The Rig Veda, which he studied especially, and from which he draws most of the quotations in support of his thesis, is said to have been, as well as the whole of the Vedas—or ‘seen’, i.e. direct, knowledge—revealed to these ‘Aryas’, i.e. ‘Lords’ of the extreme Septentrion, and preciously preserved by them during the migrations which, in the centuries, gradually brought them into India.

Tilak places the abandonment of the Arctic homeland at the moment when it lost its temperate climate and verdant vegetation to become ‘icy’, that is to say, at the moment when the Earth’s axis tilted by more than twenty-three degrees, some eight thousand years ago. He doesn’t specify whether the island or the portion of the continent thus struck by sudden sterility was swallowed up, as the Thule legend has it, or continues to exist somewhere in the vicinity or within the Arctic Circle. Nor does he mention the steps which the repositories of the Eternal Veda—the Wisdom hidden beneath the sacred texts of that name—had to take between their Arctic homeland and the first settlements they founded in north-west India.

And as his work is not addressed to initiates (who wouldn’t need it, but only to bona fide orientalist scholars whom he knows to be insensitive to any argument not supported by evidence) he says nothing about the ‘underground’ initiatory centres, Agartha and Shamballa, which are so often mentioned in the secret teaching of the Thule Society to its members—teaching which Alfred Rosenberg, Rudolf Hess, Dietrich Eckart and, presumably through the latter, Adolf Hitler himself received.

Agartha, or Agarthi, would be the centre placed ‘under the wheel of the Golden Sun’, that is to say, the one to which the contemplatives who refuse in advance to participate in the affairs of this world are attached: that of the sages whom I have called ‘men above Time’. Shamballa, on the other hand, would be the spiritual centre of men ‘against Time’: initiates who, while living in the eternal, accept to act in this world ‘in the interest of the Universe’, according to the unchanging values, or, to use the Führer’s own words, according to the ‘original meaning of things’. It is, of course, to this second centre of the Masters of Action that Adolf Hitler would relate.

Remarkably, the names of Agartha and Shamballa ‘appeared several times on the lips of more than one SS leader during the Nuremberg trials, and more particularly, of the SS leaders of the Ahnenerbe’.[3]

This organisation, among others, sent to Tibet ‘an expedition led by the SS ethnologist Standartenführer Dr Scheffer’.[4] The fragments of his reports, which exist on microfilms in the National Archives in Washington, seemed ‘extraordinary’ to André Brissaud, who read them. Why such an expedition? Certainly not to try to find, in Central Asia, ‘the origins of the Nordic race’, as Brissaud seems to think.

During the Third Reich, even schoolchildren knew from their textbooks—some of which, such as that of Klagges and Blume, So ward das Reich, were remarkable—that this race had spread from north to south and east, and not vice versa.[5] What Dr Scheffer and his collaborators wanted, no doubt, was rather to try to penetrate the mystery of Agartha and Shamballa; perhaps to try, with the help of the heads of a spiritual centre where it manifests itself, to get in touch with the principle (for it is a principle, not a personage) that René Guénon calls the ‘king of the world’.[6]

This seems all the more plausible since, among these sections of the Ahnenerbe whose work was classified as a ‘secret affair of the Reich’ and ‘of which nothing is known’, ‘one section included, in addition to the study of ancient languages, cosmology and archaeology, the study of Yoga and Zen’; and another was focused in ‘esoteric doctrines, and magical influences on human behaviour’.[7]

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[1] Brissaud: Hitler et l’Ordre Noir, page 58.
[2] Born 3 July 1856; died 1 August 1920. He was a Brahmin from Maharashtra, of the Chitpavan sub-caste.
[3] Brissaud: Hitler et l’Ordre Noir, page 59-60.
[4] Ibid.
[5] Klagges & Blume, So ward das Reich, page 15.
[6] René Guénon: Le Roi du Monde, page 13.
[7] Brissaud: Hitler et l’Ordre Noir, page 285.